"With The Advent Of The Internet"

     

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The internet started in the 1960s as a way for government researchers to nói qua information. Computers in the "60s were large và immobile & in order khổng lồ make use of information stored in any one computer, one had to lớn either travel lớn the site of the computer or have magnetic computer tapes sent through the conventional postal system.

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Another catalyst in the formation of the mạng internet was the heating up of the Cold War. The Soviet Union"s launch of the Sputnik satellite spurred the U.S. Defense Department to consider ways information could still be disseminated even after a nuclear attack. This eventually led lớn the formation of the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), the network that ultimately evolved into what we now know as the Internet. ARPANET was a great success but membership was limited khổng lồ certain academic và research organizations who had contracts with the Defense Department. In response to lớn this, other networks were created lớn provide information sharing.

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January 1, 1983 is considered the official birthday of the Internet. Prior to lớn this, the various computer networks did not have a standard way to communicate with each other. A new communications protocol was established called Transfer Control Protocol/Internetwork Protocol (TCP/IP). This allowed different kinds of computers on different networks lớn "talk" khổng lồ each other. ARPANET & the Defense Data Network officially changed khổng lồ the TCP/IP standard on January 1, 1983, hence the birth of the Internet. All networks could now be connected by a universal language.

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The image above is a scale mã sản phẩm of the UNIVAC I (the name stood for Universal Automatic Computer) which was delivered khổng lồ the Census Bureau in 1951. It weighed some 16,000 pounds, used 5,000 vacuum tubes, và could perform about 1,000 calculations per second. It was the first American commercial computer, as well as the first computer designed for business use. (Business computers lượt thích the UNIVAC processed data more slowly than the IAS-type machines, but were designed for fast input & output.) The first few sales were to lớn government agencies, the A.C. Nielsen Company, & the Prudential Insurance Company. The first UNIVAC for business applications was installed at the General Electric Appliance Division, to bởi vì payroll, in 1954. By 1957 Remington-Rand (which had purchased the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation in 1950) had sold forty-six machines.