After inventing dynamite swedish

     
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Born:October 21, 1833StockholmSweden...(Show more)Died:December 10, 1896 (aged 63)San RemoItaly...(Show more)Inventions:ballistiteblasting capdynamitegelatinous dynamite...(Show more)

Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist Alfred Nobel was born October 21, 1833, in Stockholm, Sweden.


Alfred Nobel is best known for his invention of dynamite and an explosive device called a blasting cap, which inaugurated the modern use of high explosives. He also founded the Nobel Prizes.

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Alfred Nobel initially learned the fundamentals of engineering from his father. He later learned from private tutors, becoming competent in chemistry. After working under the direction of Swedish American naval engineer and inventor John Ericsson in the United States, Nobel returned to lớn Europe to work in his father’s factory in St. Petersburg.


By 1895 Nobel had developed angina pectoris. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage at his villa in San Remo, Italy, on December 10, 1896.


Alfred Nobel was known lớn be generous in humanitarian & scientific philanthropies. In his will, he left the bulk of his fortune in trust khổng lồ establish what came to lớn be the most highly regarded of international awards, the Nobel Prizes.


Alfred Nobel, in full Alfred Bernhard Nobel, (born October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—died December 10, 1896, San Remo, Italy), Swedish chemist, engineer, và industrialist who invented dynamite and other more powerful explosives and who also founded the Nobel Prizes.

Alfred Nobel was the fourth son of Immanuel & Caroline Nobel. Immanuel was an inventor and engineer who had married Caroline Andrietta Ahlsell in 1827. The couple had eight children, of whom only Alfred và three brothers reached adulthood. Alfred was prone to lớn illness as a child, but he enjoyed a close relationship with his mother & displayed a lively intellectual curiosity from an early age. He was interested in explosives, and he learned the fundamentals of engineering from his father. Immanuel, meanwhile, had failed at various business ventures until moving in 1837 lớn St. Petersburg in Russia, where he prospered as a manufacturer of explosive mines and machine tools. The Nobel family left Stockholm in 1842 lớn join the father in St. Petersburg. Alfred’s newly prosperous parents were now able lớn send him to private tutors, và he proved to lớn be an eager pupil. He was a competent chemist by age 16 & was fluent in English, French, German, and Russian as well as Swedish.


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Alfred Nobel left Russia in 1850 to spend a year in Paris studying chemistry and then spent time in the United States working under the direction of John Ericsson, the builder of the ironclad warship Monitor. Upon his return khổng lồ St. Petersburg, in 1852, Nobel worked in his father’s factory, which made military equipment during the Crimean War. After the war ended in 1856, the company had difficulty switching to lớn the peacetime production of steamboat machinery, & it went bankrupt in 1859.

Alfred & his parents returned to lớn Sweden, while his brothers Robert and Ludvig stayed behind in Russia lớn salvage what was left of the family business. Alfred soon began experimenting with explosives in a small laboratory on his father’s estate. At the time, the only dependable explosive for use in mines was black powder, a form of gunpowder. A recently discovered liquid compound, nitroglycerin, was a much more powerful explosive, but it was so unstable that it could not be handled with any degree of safety. Nevertheless, Nobel in 1862 built a small factory to manufacture nitroglycerin, and at the same time he undertook research in the hope of finding a safe way to lớn control the explosive’s detonation. In 1863 he invented a practical detonator consisting of a wooden plug inserted into a larger charge of nitroglycerin held in a metal container; the explosion of the plug’s small charge of black powder serves to lớn detonate the much more powerful charge of liquid nitroglycerin. This detonator marked the beginning of Nobel’s reputation as an inventor as well as the fortune he was to lớn acquire as a maker of explosives. In 1865 Nobel invented an improved detonator called a blasting cap; it consisted of a small metal cap containing a charge of mercury fulminate that can be exploded by either shock or moderate heat. The invention of the blasting cap inaugurated the modern use of high explosives.


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Nitroglycerin itself, however, remained difficult lớn transport và extremely dangerous to handle. So dangerous, in fact, that Nobel’s nitroglycerin factory blew up in 1864, killing his younger brother Emil and several other people. Undaunted by this tragic accident, Nobel built several factories lớn manufacture nitroglycerin for use in concert with his blasting caps. These factories were as safe as the knowledge of the time allowed, but accidental explosions still occasionally occurred. Nobel’s second important invention was that of dynamite in 1867. By chance, he discovered that nitroglycerin was absorbed to dryness by kieselguhr, a porous siliceous earth, and the resulting mixture was much safer to use and easier lớn handle than nitroglycerin alone. Nobel named the new product dynamite (from Greek dynamis, “power”) và was granted patents for it in Great Britain (1867) & the United States (1868). Dynamite established Nobel’s fame worldwide and was soon put to lớn use in blasting tunnels, cutting canals, & building railways & roads.

In the 1870s and ’80s Nobel built a network of factories throughout Europe to manufacture dynamite, & he formed a web of corporations to produce & market his explosives. He also continued to experiment in tìm kiếm of better ones, and in 1875 he invented a more powerful khung of dynamite, blasting gelatin, which he patented the following year. Again by chance, he had discovered that mixing a solution of nitroglycerin with a fluffy substance known as nitrocellulose results in a tough, plastic material that has a high water resistance and greater blasting power than ordinary dynamites. In 1887 Nobel introduced ballistite, one of the first nitroglycerin smokeless powders and a precursor of cordite. Although Nobel held the patents to dynamite and his other explosives, he was in constant conflict with competitors who stole his processes, a fact that forced him into protracted patent litigation on several occasions.

Nobel’s brothers Ludvig & Robert, in the meantime, had developed newly discovered oilfields near Baku (now in Azerbaijan) along the Caspian Sea and had themselves become immensely wealthy. Alfred’s worldwide interests in explosives, along with his own holdings in his brothers’ companies in Russia, brought him a large fortune. In 1893 he became interested in Sweden’s arms industry, & the following year he bought an ironworks at Bofors, near Varmland, that became the nucleus of the well-known Bofors arms factory. Besides explosives, Nobel made many other inventions, such as artificial silk và leather, and altogether he registered more than 350 patents in various countries.

Nobel’s complex personality puzzled his contemporaries. Although his business interests required him to travel almost constantly, he remained a lonely recluse who was prone khổng lồ fits of depression. He led a retired và simple life & was a man of ascetic habits, yet he could be a courteous dinner host, a good listener, và a man of incisive wit. He never married, và apparently preferred the joys of inventing khổng lồ those of romantic attachment. He had an abiding interest in literature và wrote plays, novels, & poems, almost all of which remained unpublished. He had amazing energy and found it difficult to lớn relax after intense bouts of work. Among his contemporaries, he had the reputation of a liberal or even a socialist, but he actually distrusted democracy, opposed suffrage for women, and maintained an attitude of benign paternalism toward his many employees. Though Nobel was essentially a pacifist & hoped that the destructive powers of his inventions would help bring an over to war, his view of mankind and nations was pessimistic.

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By 1895 Nobel had developed angina pectoris, & he died of a cerebral hemorrhage at his villa in San Remo, Italy, in 1896. At his death his worldwide business empire consisted of more than 90 factories manufacturing explosives & ammunition. The opening of his will, which he had drawn up in Paris on November 27, 1895, & had deposited in a ngân hàng in Stockholm, contained a great surprise for his family, friends, và the general public. He had always been generous in humanitarian and scientific philanthropies, & he left the bulk of his fortune in trust to lớn establish what came to lớn be the most highly regarded of international awards, the Nobel Prizes.